O sal segundo Câmara Cascudo

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O sal segundo Câmara Cascudo

Verbete Sal do Dicionário do Folclore Brasileiro. Ediouro, 3ª edição; 1972. p. 795: Sal. É citado por Jesus Cristo em linguagem simbólica, a conservação, a durabilidade [Marcos, IX, 49, Lucas, XIV, 34, Mateus, V, 13]. É o sal sapientiae no batismo católico. Sobre a simbólica do sal Ernest Jones escreveu o erudito The Symbolio Significance of Salt [“Essays on Applied Psycho-Analysis”, Londres, 1923], mostrando a universalidade de sua aplicação como elemento antimágico ou afastador de malefícios. Seu uso nos recém-nascidos, fricção ou absorção, é muito anterior ao batismo católico, que manteve um elemento de crendice oriental, uma força apotropaica. Basta lembrar Ezequiel, XVI, 4, recordando a Jerusalém, em nome do Senhor: “Quando, ao teu nascimento, no dia em que nasceste, não te foi cortado o umbigo, nem foste lavada com água, vendo-te eu, nem tampouco foste esfregada com sal”. Sal é também o esquecimento, a esterilidade. Pôr sal à porta de uma rival obriga-a a deixar o namorado. Salgar o chão é condená-lo à improdutividade. No catimbó o sal é poderoso, indispensável para “o trabalho às esquerdas”, para o mal. Derramar o sal na mesa é agouro, que Leonardo da Vinci não esqueceu na Ceia, pondo o saleiro entornado diante de Judas.

 

A última ceia - o sal derrubado

 

Nas Denunciações da Bahia [ed. Paulo Prado, 303, São Paulo, 1925] Joana Ribeiro, em agosto de 1591, foi denunciada por ter salgado uma membrana fetal, embruxando o recém-nascido. Um dos feitiços tremendos é o sal misturado com areia na pegada de uma criatura, tendo no meio uma unha, um cabelo, um pedaço de roupa íntima. Provoca feridas incuráveis. O contrafeitiço é diluir o sal na água do mar, com um cerimonial complicado [Luiz da Câmara Cascudo, Meleagro, 97, nota 48, 112-115, 116, ed. Agir, Rio de |Janeiro, 1951]. Iavé recomenda que “em toda a tua oferta oferecerás sal” [Levítico, II, 13]. A ciência popular manda comer sal junto para que se conheça uma criatura. El-Rei D. Duarte, no Leal Conselheiro, cap. XIX, mandava que se comece um moio de sal, para melhor conhecimento do amigo. Um moio de sal equivalia a sessenta alqueires. Os franceses também aconselhavam a degustação de um muid de sel com o futuro amigo. O muid, em latim modius, mesma raiz de moio, valia duzentos e quarenta litros. Os negros de Angola não encontraram melhor símbolo para o batizado. Se são cristãos, informam: Didimungua, comi sal. O padrinho é o pai do sal, tat´a mungua. A madrinha, a mãe do sal, mamá mungua. O afilhado, filho do sal, mon´a mungua. Os companheiros de batizado, irmãos do sal, pange a mungua. Comer o sal na casa de alguém é estabelecer um vínculo de sagrado fidelismo. Assim os servos de Artaxerxes, escribas e conselheiro, recordavam-se de Jerusalém, de que haviam comido o sal no palácio real, razão de seu devotamento; “Nos autem memores salis quod in palatio comedimus” [Esdras, IV, 14 e segs.]. Oferta litúrgica na Grécia e em Roma. Imagem do espírito, da graça, da vivacidade mental, ter sal [Cícero, Cornélio Horácio]. Salário era a quantia em dinheiro para o legionário romano adquirir o sal indispensável. Para o Oriente o sal da hospitalidade é um dogma, um pacto, um ahd. Numa estória de Mil e uma Noites [Victor Chavin, Bibliographie des Ouvrages Arabes, VI, 195-196, Liège, 1902] um trabalhador obrigado pela miséria, acompanha um grupo de ladrões assaltantes do tesouro real. Vendo na escuridão brilhar um objeto branco, que ele julga um jóia, toca-o com a língua e reconhece ser um bloco de sal. Tendo provado o sal do rei, o tabalhador considera-se imediatamente seu hóspede, ligado ao soberano pelo vínculo da hospitalidade, que o sal determina. Reagiu contra os ladrões obrigando-os a abandonar o roubo, salvando o tesouro. Depois de peripécias, o trabalhador, “hóspede do sal”, confessa ao rei o que fizera e é nomeado tesoureiro. Tal é a simbologia do sal. Feiticeiro e bruxa não pisam sal, que é substância sagrada.

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